Over the past week I've been dog-paddling through the ocean of misery that is migrating a blog from one host (WordPress) to another (GitHub Pages) and attempting to learn enough CSS and Jinja to handle setting up my site using Pelican. I have no experience with CSS! And my HTML experience is limited to injecting angst into my MySpace profile! And I became aware of Jinja and Pelican's existence about a week ago! So obviously I've drowned myself in 1.5 bottles of my neighborhood liquor store's 2-bottles-of-wine-for-$10 special.
The great part about this whole process is that with Pelican, I can write my blog posts and pages in Markdown (about which I also knew little until last week, but it's wonderfully easy to learn.) I am so tired of wrangling with WordPress's built-in editor trying to get my code blocks and in-line code to format correctly. Markdown is a blissful alternative.
There's a plethora of material online on Pelican and GitHub pages, but it is fairly disconnected and presumes a certain level of front-end development experience, of which I have none. Hopefully this post can help others make this transition with less misery.
GitHub Pages Setup
- Create a GitHub repo following the GitHub Pages instructions (the first step only!)
A note on GitHub Pages: I believe your HTML files (particularly your index.html file) must be in the main directory of your git repo for this to work. This will be important later. More detail is given in the Posting to GitHub section.
Install necessary packages
Run Pelican quickstart
This will ask you lots of questions that probably seem foreign. These questions will set up some configuration files that you can later edit with your preferred settings. As an example, here's how I answered:
Where do you want to create your new web site? [.]
What will be the title of this web site?
> Amy Hanlon
Who will be the author of this web site?
> Amy Hanlon
What will be the default language of this web site? [en]
Do you want to specify a URL prefix? e.g., http://example.com (Y/n)
What is your URL prefix? (see above example; no trailing slash)
Do you want to enable article pagination? (Y/n)
How many articles per page do you want? 
Do you want to generate a Fabfile/Makefile to automate generation and publishing? (Y/n)
Do you want an auto-reload & simpleHTTP script to assist with theme and site development? (Y/n)
Do you want to upload your website using FTP? (y/N)
Do you want to upload your website using SSH? (y/N)
Do you want to upload your website using Dropbox? (y/N)
Do you want to upload your website using S3? (y/N)
Do you want to upload your website using Rackspace Cloud Files? (y/N)
Now if you type the
tree command within your blog's main directory, you should see:
If you don't have
tree, you should! It's neat.
brew install tree. If you're on OSX and don't have Homebrew, you should! It's neat.
I'll briefly explain each of these files/directories:
Makefile tells the command
make what to do. This file defines commands like
make devserver. More information on
make can be found here. I'll cover more on how to use this command for developing your site in the Generating Your Site section.
content is the directory that should house all of your Markdown files. Pelican assumes that your articles/blog posts will be inside this directory. Additionally, there are some special directories you should create within
$ mkdir content/pages
$ mkdir content/images
Pelican by default is configured to know that your pages (i.e. static pages like About Me, Contact, etc) are found within this
pages directory and that images are found within the
develop_server.sh is a bash script that I believe handles serving your site locally during development (i.e. it serves your site to http://localhost:8000).
fabfile.py is a configuration file for Fabric which allows you to generate your site using the
fab command. You'll need to
pip install fabric if you want to use it. Alternatively you can just use
output is, by default, where Pelican will store your HTML files when you run
pelican content. This can cause issues which I describe in the section Posting to GitHub.
pelicanconf.py houses your Pelican configuration settings.
publishconf.py is like
pelicanconf.py in that it houses Pelican configuration settings, but is not intended to be used for local development. The reasoning behind having two separate files is described in this Stack Overflow answer.
Exporting Existing Content
This section assumes you have existing content on a WordPress blog. Pelican also has an importer for Dotclear and RSS/Atom feeds. You can skip this section if you don't have existing content living elsewhere that you want to port to your site on GitHub Pages.
- Export WordPress content to XML
- Imperfectly convert the XML to Markdown using Pelican
- Manually export your images from your WordPress Media Library (I know. This sucks.) Move these images to
- Manually edit the Markdown output (your code blocks, links, embedded images will likely need editing).
- Move your Markdown files to the
content directory within your website's main directory. Content intended to be static pages (i.e. About Me, Contact, etc) should go in the
content/pages directory. Articles/blog posts should go in the
Clone the available Pelican Themes into your blog's main directory.
$ git clone https://github.com/getpelican/pelican-themes
Choose a theme you'd like to use. Pelican by default comes with the notmyidea and simple themes. Most other themes have a sample image in the pelican-themes repo to help you decide.
After you've chosen a theme, set the THEME variable in your
pelicanconf.py file to the absolute or relative path to the theme. For example, I'm using the subtle theme and added this line to my
THEME = "pelican-themes/subtle"
This method is better than using
pelican-themes as described here, because it ensures that the Pelican HTML output will reflect any changes you make to the theme (without having to re-install the theme by running the
All elements of your theme are customizable! You can change attributes of text like font, size, color, and more in the
main.css file found in your theme's directory. For example, I've made many edits to the file
Similarly, you can change layouts of your pages (like what shows up in your site nav menu) by exploring the HTML files in the
templates folder within your theme. There will usually be a
base.html file (or something similar) that provides the foundation for things like your header and site nav menu that will apply to every page.
There should also be HTML files that serve as templates for specific types of pages. For example,
article.html defines the basic structure for your articles/blog posts. If you want to change the metadata that displays above article content, you should look there.
If you see something on your website that you want to change, and you're not sure where to look in your theme's CSS/HTML files, right click on the element in the browser and go to "Inspect Element". This will show you where in the HTML the element is (on the left) and what parts of the CSS file define its style (on the right). You can adjust things here in the browser to test out different fonts, colors, etc, but changes you make to the code in your browser will not be reflected in your source files.
Generating Your Site
Once you have markdown files in your
content folder, navigate to your blog's main directory and run:
$ cd blog
$ make devserver
make devserver does a number of things: first it runs the
pelican command on your
content folder to generate HTML for your site using the theme you specify in your
pelicanconf.py file, and serves your site locally at http://localhost:8000.
make devserver will also automatically regenerate your site (i.e. run
content every time you save a change to a content, configuration, or theme file! Just refresh the page in your browser, and you should immediately see the changes. If this doesn't work, it's probably due to the settings you have in your configuration files (
Posting to GitHub
Recall that you need a repository on GitHub named username.github.io (this will be the remote repository for your blog), and that your HTML files need to be in this repository's main directory (not within a subdirectory).
It's intuitive to initialize a local repository for your blog within your blog's main directory, because in addition to posting the HTML, you'd also like to backup your content Markdown files, configuration files, and customized theme. This is a reasonable desire!
However, if you do this, GitHub won't generate your site! It isn't smart enough to know that the HTML files it needs to serve are actually contained within the
output folder (recall that Pelican by default saves the HTML it generates in this folder).
The best solution I've come up with so far (and please email me if you know of a better solution!) is to create two separate repositories - one inside the
output directory where Pelican generates your HTML (this repo should have username.github.io on GitHub as a remote), and another in your blog's main directory with your source Markdown files (in
content), theme, and configuration files (this repo should have a different remote on GitHub).
In the terminal, move to the
output directory, and initialize a git repo. Add a remote pointing to the repo you created on GitHub (called username.github.io), add all the files you want to commit, commit, and push changes to the remote repository.
$ cd output
$ git init
$ git remote add origin https://github.com/username/username.github.io.git
$ git add --all
$ git commit -m "commit message"
$ git push origin master
If you use this method, you'll want to change the following setting to
False in your
DELETE_OUTPUT_DIRECTORY = False
Otherwise if you use the
publishconf.py file as your settings file when running the
pelican command, you'll delete your git repo!
Similarly, don't use the
make clean command! If you poke around the
Makefile, you'll see that
make clean runs
rm -rf output which will delete all files (including your git repo) in your output folder.
If you accidentally delete the repo in your output folder, it's not a huge deal (I've done it like 5 times playing with different commands and settings). Just clone your remote username.github.io repo into a new, empty
output folder, re-generate your site with any changes you've made since your last push to the remote, and then commit and push the changes to the remote:
$ cd blog
$ git clone https://github.com/username/username.github.io.git output
$ pelican content
$ cd output
$ git add --all
$ git commit -m "commit message"
$ git push origin master
You'll also need to set up another repository for your source content, configuration files, and theme, which is annoying. I added a .gitignore to this repo to ignore the files in the output folder, but that isn't necessary.
Within about 10 minutes of pushing your changes, your site should be up and running! (Later changes should be reflected on your site almost instantaneously.)
Custom Domain Setup
If you have your own domain name that you'd like to use instead of username.github.io, you'll need to follow these instructions.
Feel free to poke around my blog's GitHub repos (beware: there are unpublished draft posts in there). My configuration files in particular might be useful to you.
If any of you Hacker Schoolers have trouble migrating your blog, I'd be happy to help!
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